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This book meets the needs of teachers and students of agriculture and rural development project and programme planning, planners employed by governments in developing countries and by external financing agencies. Project planners must understand the aspirations of rural families and their local leaders, the national development and sector planning goals and policies of their governments and the development goals and policy priorities perceived by external financing agencies in relation to their countries. These areas are not always consistent and trade-offs may be required. However it is recognised that poor project planning is a major constraint to the sustainable realization of project and programme objectives and sector goals. Illustrated with case studies and logical framework matrices, this book presents well-established and relatively new practices followed in the context of agriculture and rural development project and programme planning. Although based on experiences gained in Africa, the issues described are relevant to planning problems encountered in other developing regions of the world. It addresses the main factors which affect the success of planning such as a government's ability to guarantee macro-economic stability and sound sector development policies; the shift from 'top-down', bureaucratic to 'bottom-up', participatory planning approaches and the roles played by external financing agencies. It explains key technical, financial, economic, environmental, socio-cultural, equity, gender and institutional-strengthening issues concerning planning in rural areas and reviews the planning tools and approaches available. The procurement of goods and services, the disbursement of funds and monitoring and evaluation requirements are examined in detail.
The origin of England and English language is better done by historians. However, England is a one of the country in United Kingdom. The remaining countries that make up United Kingdom is Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. It is a small but mighty kingdom that traverse all nooks and corners of the world in colonial past, present and the future. In view of the fact that all nations of the world that have ever had direct or indirect English touch behaves similar to the English men, including forgetting their mother tongue which the English people have refused to forget. The home base of the country is an island within 51 44; 0 26, 32 OD. Exactly lying at the center of the earth (the equator) - The Greenwich Meridian. Hence, the Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) from where other geographical times were derived. All forces of nature attract to the equator. Hence, all countries of the world are attracted to Greenwich (England in quote). Their Roman past has shaped their present and the future and may have informed the past, present and future. Igboji (2015) described fairly five periods of English agriculture. The prehistoric agriculture, time when predominantly all English land was regarded as pristine woodland (6000 BC to 1200 AD). The historic agriculture, period dominated by traditional shepherds and husbandmen whose activities included returning of wheat straw to the land during seebbed preparation and trying of certain innovations like use of red clover seeds imported from Holland to enrich soil fertility (1201 1699 AD). The agricultural revolution marked by the use of agricultural equipment like ploughs, harrow, thresher, chemical fertilizer and soil drainage technology, improved seeds in intensive and extensive arable and pastoral farming (1700 - 1904 AD). The post agricultural revolution, marked by the enclosure of open fields, common lands, meadows and wastes, conversion of land to more profitable uses, example laying of old arable land to permanent pasture or long leys, ploughing and putting under suitable rotation common and rough hills overgrown with weeds or that was bare through overgrazing (1905 to 1986 AD). The green planet, marked by environmental movements - earth first, green peace, green party and national and international treaties, as well as code of conduct for protection and preservation of air, water and soil resources (1987 to 2025 AD). The post green planet, a period where some environmental problems are envisaged ranging from higher greenhouse gases scenario and climate change (2026 - 2055 AD). The English generations of eight thousand years ago underestimated the English generation of the 21st century. Likewise, the 21st century English generation can never underestimate the next 8000 years generation. What manner of agriculture and agricultural landscape. Will there be farming in sea and ocean floor, in space, in the moon, stars and the sun. What manner of agriculture, crops, labour, price and land use. What type of soil and climate shall we have then. Shall there be still United Kingdom with four countries, European Union. Where will their next empire extend to. What type of world. Will there be a world of one citizen. World without borders or polarization. World free of nuclear proliferation and warheads. What manner of citizens and leaders shall the world hold by the next 8000 of English culture and diversity. Will global warming start and end at the Greenwich as the centre of the world. What implications for humanity. To me only God has the magic key and he lives after the sun but present everywhere in all realm and rule over nations and principalities. Since English scientist have failed to produce human blood, semen and egg irrespective of their feat in invitro-fertilisation, cloning, genetic modifications and high techs the solution still lies on God by atheists, Christians, Muslims, Buddhists, Sikhs, pagans and those who believe only in themselves. This book explores English milleniu"
Negotiating the liberalization of world agricultural trade in the World Trade Organization (WTO) is fraught with difficulty due to the complexity of the issues and the wide range of interests across countries. In the round of global trade negotiations under the WTO, different perspectives on trade reform have produced a highly contentious agenda. These issues are addressed from a range of perspectives in this survey of the trade agenda and its implications for both developing and developed countries. Agricultural trade specialists, including those in universities, in international organizations and think tanks, analyse a comprehensive range of topics including interests and options in the WTO trade negotiations, the trade agenda from a development patent perspective, WTO trade rules, trade barriers, tariff negotiations and patent protection for developing countries.
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